The following links to questionnaires with relevant scoring methodology can be of value in providing specific treatment:

1.  Örebro Musculoskeletal Pain Screening Questionnaire

2. Örebro Musculoskeletal Pain Screening Questionnaire scoring spreadsheet - enter item scores and spreadsheet will auto-calculate the score and interpretation

3.  Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale

4.  Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale scoring spreadsheet -  enter item scores and spreadsheet will auto-calculate the score and interpretation

5.  Pain Catastrophising Scale

6.  Pain Catastrophising Scale scoring spreadsheet -  enter item scores and spreadsheet will auto-calculate the score and interpretation

7.  Pain Self Efficacy Questionnaire

8.  Post Traumatic Stress Disorder checklist

9.  Post Traumatic Stress Disorder scoring spreadsheet -  enter item scores and spreadsheet will auto-calculate the score and interpretation

 

Learn by watching

The STOPS.physio team have published detailed treatment protocols available in full text. However there is nothing like seeing a practitioner in action to learn. The following videos show STOPS.physio practitioners in action with patients

 
 

pain education

There are many different ways of explaining to a patient the complex issue of persistent pain. See Dr Jon Ford (PhD, Musculoskeletal Physiotherapist) use a simple but effective pain education explanation. In conjunction with other education and discussion such an explanation sets the patient up for an effective rehabilitation program addressing the pathoanatomical, impairment, psychosocial and neurophysiological components of their pain problem.

 

Pacing explanation

Learning how to pace is important in persistent pain, particularly in people with a significant pathoanatomical driver to their problem. See Dr Jon Ford (PhD, Musculoskeletal Physiotherapist) use a simple but effective pacing explanation. In conjunction with other education and discussion such an explanation sets the patient up for an effective rehabilitation program addressing the pathoanatomical, impairment, psychosocial and neurophysiological components of their pain problem.

 

increase in pain explanation

Learning how to deal with an increase in pain is a critical phase in the rehabilitation program. See Dr Jon Ford (PhD, Musculoskeletal Physiotherapist) use a simple but effective increase in pain explanation. Note that the explanation is geared around a patient with a possible pathoanatomical component to their pain problem. In patients with a predominant central sensitisation or psychosocial based pain problem the explanation would de-emphasise approaches such as tape and NSAIDs in settling the pain.

The STOPS.physio approach is informed by a variety of key research papers from other expert groups.  Full text links provided below:

1.  Keith Smart et al 2010 - Clinical indicators of ‘nociceptive’, ‘peripheral neuropathic’ and ‘central’ mechanisms of musculoskeletal pain. A Delphi survey of expert clinicians

2.  Bart Koes et al 2010 - An updated overview of clinical guidelines for the management of non-specific low back pain in primary care

3.  Hodges et al 2013 - Spinal Control: The Rehabilitation of Back Pain, 1st Edition.  A classic explanation of the consensus and divergence of opinion on motor control of the spine.  Essential reading

4.  Hodges 2008 - Paul Hodges responds eloquently to criticisms of motor control training for low back pain 

5.  Michael Adams 2016 - Professor of Biomechanics at The University of Bristol explains about "non-specific low back pain" and the relevance of the lumbar disc to practitioners seeking to provide specific treatment.  Those with journal access should refer to Prof Adams' outstanding 2010 paper "Healing of a painful intervertebral disc should not be confused with reversing disc degeneration: implications for physical therapies for discogenic back pain"

6. Kent and Keating 2005 - Classification in Nonspecific Low Back Pain: What Methods do Primary Care Clinicians Currently Use? Kent and Keating discuss the sub-grouping of non specific lower back pain and what the current consensus is with treating practitioners

7. Kolber and Hanney 2009 - The dynamic disc model: a systematic review of the literature. Reviews anatomical studies showing that the nucleus migrates in a predictable manner in response to repeated and sustained movements. Supportive evidence for the Directional Preference Management (STOPS protocol 2) targeting the intervertebral disc

8. Laslett, Oberg, Aprill, McDonald 2005Centralization as a predictor of lumbar provocation discography. Shows that assessment using Mechanical Loading Strategies (STOPS protocol 2) predicts discography (which is the best reference standard we have for diagnosing discogenic pain)